Monday, May 25, 2020
The long-term health consequences of deprived prenatal nutrition are a significant concern on a global scale. Nutrition, as an environmental factor, plays an important role in stimulating alterations in various epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. Specific dietary stressors can create epigenetic variations to the present lifetime but also to successive generations. Epidemiological and experimental studies highlight the association between adult health and early-life maternal nutritional stressors such as under-nutrition, malnutrition and over-nutrition. Gestational maternal nutrition is a critical intrauterine factor which changes offspring epigenome. Numerous animal and human model studies reveal thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Pregnant mothers require greater energy inputs and when these requirements are sufficient because of poor diets, long-term diseases in offspring develop (Langley-Evans, 2006). Fetal developmental periods are critical to h uman life as a majority of the epigenetic programming events take place during this time. Maternal under-nutrition during critical periods (fetal programming) is an important predictor of obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes (Lakshmy, 2013). The underlying Ã¢â¬Å"fetal programmingÃ¢â¬ hypothesis indicates that during critical periods of fetal development, changes in the prenatal environment cause the differential expression of genes affecting offspring phenotype later on (Lakshmy, 2013).The BarkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Early Origins Hypothesis states that unfavourable fetal growth and poor nutrition may contribute to and increases risk of chronic disease because under-nutrition in prenatal environments alters the fetusesÃ¢â¬â¢ body structure, physiology and metabolism (Vaiserman, 2014). This concept is present in current North American populations with the growing obesity epidemic due to excessive carbohydrate and sugar intake during gestation. Understanding the epig enetic modulation of maternal nutrition on offspring health is essential as chronic disease rates are increasing in most of the developing and industrialized nations. The knowledge accumulated through understanding this phenomenon may be important to
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Argumentative Essay on War Motivations War is, first of all, a behavior pattern that means a definite state of organized conflict between two or more social entities. The main reason for such a conflict is an attempt to be on top of hierarchy either psychological or material. Aspect of domination is basic for all wars throughout history. But all over the history war was undertaken as noble. Nowadays we can postulate war not only as undesirable but also as morally problematic issue. Are there reasonable causes to start a war? It is obvious that the issue is deeper than it seems. Pacifists will surely announce that there are no fair reasons to start any kind of war. Other point of view lies in accepting perceived threat as possible viable reason for a war. But in this case there are some questions to be answered. When does this threat become a serious reason for a war? What are after-effects or consequences of ignoring the upcoming threat? How much time should pass from the moment when the threat appears to the moment when actions need to be taken? Threats also can be different. Are they life-important? In terms of war we understand threat as threat to human existence: scarce and deficient resources or incompatible ideology. The unchangeable factor for all kind of wars is the usage of organized violence and destruction of lives and property. Anyway, injustice also develops; it also has dynamics. And the question is: should people risk their lives fighting or should they risk becoming victims? Modern international law accepts only two types of wars: war of defense and wars that are sanctioned by UN Security Council (for example, peace keeping operations). To sum up weÃ¢â¬â¢d better use words of Carl Von Clausewitz: Every age has its own kind of war, its own limiting conditions and its own peculiar preconceptions.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
There is More to Rap Music Than Just Violent Lyrics ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to show that there is more to rap and hip hop lyrics than what most people take them for. It cannot be disputed that violence is a major theme in this genre of music, but the lyrics of artists who have been able to stay in the game for a long time show that overtime the subject of their song matter varies with their experiences and success. Two artists who are very well respected in the rap industry and who have been around for awhile, Nas and Jay-Z both show a wide variety of topics in their music and that with success their music went from violent tales to songs that are more fun, more positive and more concerned with material things. Using aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Jay-Z explains in one song#8230;I never prayed to God, a Pray to Gotti. The desire for material things is something very common to those that are listening. Jay-Z, coming from the same back round writes songs on things he knows and surrounds him. Besides the hunger another su bject that is very common to this subculture is violence. It is not a coincidence that violence is a subject matter prevalent in both the music and the subculture. Like Donna Gaines, Nas and Jay-Z acts as sociologists reporting what they see. Nas writes on the graphic violence that he is accustomed to#8230;Straight up *censored* is real and any day could be your last in the jungle get murdered on the humble, gunsll blast, niggaz tumble the corners is the hot spot, full of mad criminals who dont care guzzling beers#8230; Donna Gaines writes that she has observed that the burnouts drink in front of a 7-11, Nas also explains that criminals hang out on the corner. Both Donna and Nas write about what they observe. It is true that violence is a major theme in this music, but that is because the artists are writing about the real issues that are present in the subculture whom they are part of. If Jay-Z and Nas continued to write song lyrics covering the same things in their first album in their later ones, than it could be argued there is too much nonsense and violence in lyrics. However, that is notShow MoreRelatedEssay about Rap Music and Teen Violence 944 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMusic can be a reflection of our life experiences. Each genre of music invokes different emotions and reactions in its listeners. Rap has become a very popular genre of music. As its popularity has increased, some people have questioned whether it can trigger violence in teens. While some rap songs do have violent lyrics, there is no direct evidence that rap music provokes violence in teenagers. Rap music has African roots just like jazz, the blues and rock Ã¢â¬ËnÃ¢â¬â¢ roll. African slaves sang songsRead MoreMusic Lyrics Do Not Promote Violence1697 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMusic Lyrics being NON-VIOLENT Rap music can be considered a style of art, and a way for the artists to express feelings through their words on paper. However, there are quite a few rap artists that get criticized for their lyrics. In my essay, I want to discuss why rappers use certain lyrics in their music and why people shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that it causes violence among the younger generations. People shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t censor the music just because of violent, vulgar and abusive messages it promotes to theRead MoreRap Music And Its Effects On Society1535 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthis is O.T. GenAsis and his awe inspiring lyrics featured in his hit single Ã¢â¬Å"CocoÃ¢â¬ . 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If you read into these cases you will notice a common theme between them; the defense willRead MoreRap Music : Hip Hop Essay1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRap, or hip hop as some call it, ranks in t he top ten of most popular music genres in the world. Since it burst on the scene in the late 1970s, rap music changed the landscape of the music industry, especially for African-American artists. The genre accredited some of the biggest names in the music industry. Popular artists like LL Cool J, Tupac, Notorious B. I. G., Jay-Z, Kanye West, and many others produce, or have produced, millions of hip-hop records. The secret to the success of hip hop centersRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Hot Nigga Essay1590 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"coolness.Ã¢â¬ They played the song for me and as I paid attention to the lyrics, I noted its constant mention of violence and I wondered if they did as well. While I initially found the lyrics of the song Ã¢â¬Å"Hot NiggaÃ¢â¬ disturbing, very quickly I realized that although my cousins proclaimed their love for this Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ song and repeated the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"About a week agoÃ¢â¬ with reckless abandonment, they seemed to lack awareness of the rest of the lyrics. This became evident when I asked them to sing it, and the onlyRead MoreRap Music And Its Influence On African American Youth1705 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Music and society have always been closely related. For years now music has been apart of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday lives all around the world. Having so many different genres out there, it makes it easy to be appealing to so many different ethnic backgrounds. However, one type of genre in particular has seemed to grab the attention of a younger generation. Rap music has undoubtedly had its utmost impact on African American youth, since many of the performers themselves are African American. An overtlyRead MoreEssay on Rap and Hip Hop Do Not Affect Society Negatively987 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Rap and hip hop music have been debated many times over the years about whether or not this choice of music affects society negatively. As you will learn from this presentation, rap does not affect society negatively and is a great choice of music. It helps save lives, relieves stress, and tells vital messages to learn from. According to dictionary.com, the definition of hip hop is defined as, Ã¢â¬Å"the popular subculture of big-city teenagers, which includes rap music, breakdancing, and graffiti artRead MoreRegulating Children And Teen s Music Choice1343 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRegulate Children and TeenÃ¢â¬â¢s Music Choice Music is prevalent and can be heard in a plethora of places such as, grocery stores, on the radio, and even on commercials. There are thousands of different genres of music that all serve the same purpose. Music varies all over the world and it is undeniable that it is very influential. It has the power to bring people together, put people in a good mood, bring back memories and inspire. Although music can be a positive influence by triggering happiness andRead More Music Censorship Essay1269 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMusic Censorship Healthy debates have been caused by todays music. Generally, foul language has rapidly increased within modern popular song lyrics, especially among rap and heavy metal artists songs. An increase in explicit violence and misogyny in popular music lyrics has been recorded. These lyrics have been judged to be inspirations for violent, suicidal, and criminal acts. For example, Mr. Raymond Kuntz referred to his sons incident. When his wife went to wake their son for school, they
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theBasic Business Law for Carbolic Smoke Ball Company. Answer: Facts of the case Carlil Smoke Ball Co. (Def) had made to pay 100 pounds to the person who contracts flu after using smoke ball. The Carlil Smoke ball Co. Asserted to cure for influenza and the other diseases. The smoke ball was rubbers Carlil (plaintiff) used the Smoke ball but contact flu. The Carbolic Smoke Ball Co produced the 'Carbolic Smoke Ball' that is designed to avert users suffering influenza or related disease. The ad for the product was as follows: Carlil Smoke Ball Co. (Def) will pay a reward of 100 pounds reward to an individual who contracts the growing epidemic influenza, colds, or any disease from cold, subsequent to using the ball three times daily for two weeks as per the directions given with each ball. Further the advert stated that a sum of 1,000 pounds is deposited with the Alliance Bank, Regent Street, in regard of performance in the matter(McKendrick, 2014). Mrs Louisa Elizabeth Carlill purchased the balls and used it as per the mentioned direction, three times a day, from November 20, 1891, to January 17, 1892, while she contracted influenza. Due to this she claimed the compensation; where The Company declined to pay, even after getting a notice from the solicitor(ACL,2013). Arguments of the plaintiff Mrs. Carlil sued the company arguing existence of contract between the parties while considering her confidence in the product. The advertisement made by Carlil Smoke Ball is a valid offer and was not an empty swank. It was made to the public and an individual does the particular act there is a contract. Performance of the act comprise acceptance for which further communication is not important. In case of an open offer, nothing can be introduced supplementary than the fulfillment of the conditions. Such an offer doesnt require a notice for fulfilling the condition. There is a binding contract and the terms were not indistinct and unsure(Jalil, 2011). Arguments of the defendant Carbolic Smoke Ball Co said that there was no binding contract and the advertisement expressed an intention, that doesnt create a legal obligation. The advertisement was unclear to constitute a contract, as there was no consideration from the plaintiff. The supposed contract enables an individual to steal and use the balls in order to claim the reward. In order to perform a contract, there needs to be communication of purpose to accept the offer. According to Carbolic Smoke ball simply performing an act in private is not enough to consider it as a contract(Knapp, Crystal Prince,2016). Reason for the decision of the case It was noted that the advertisement constituted an offer. There was a binding contract. The offer was too unclear to constitute an offer due to an absence of fixed time limit for catching influenza. The intention behind the advertisement was clear that directly states the purpose for creating legal relationship. Decision of the court I do agree with the judgment given by Lord Justice Lindley on the following grounds: The advertisement in its plain meaning was meant for the community and to be read by the public. The purpose was to instigate sales and to attract people to use smoke ball. For the reason an offer has to be made to the world at large. The contract would be made with those who fulfill the condition attached with it(Smits, 2017). It is not possible to be informed of acceptance of the offer, and the performance of act. The Consideration exists at the time when sale was made. Carbolic Smoke ball has clearly stated its intention in the advertisement. The purpose was to create a legal obligation. There was consideration for some reason to promote their sale. The intention is pretty much clear. The situation was not vague and clearly states a commitment to pay a sum in case of non-fulfillment of mentioned situation (McKendrick,2014). An offer can be made to the whole world will be fulfilled as and when an individual fulfill the obligation. There is no necessity to notify the acceptance - There is no need for notification of acceptance in case of an open offer. Anyone can accept the offer under such a situation. The offeror will be responsible to fulfill all the obligations attached with it. An inference need to be made from the transaction itself in order to perform the condition. This condition doesnt attract notification. Furthermore, the act was not a mere puff. Lord Justice Lindley stated that - the deposit of a sum with the bank showcases genuineness. This would be an insensitive thing to guarantee such sums to individuals unless possible to confirm their method of using it(Poole, Devenney Shaw-Mellors,2017). References ACL, (2013). Carlill v Carbolic Smoke ball Company  1 QB 256.(ONLINE). Retrieved from: https://www.australiancontractlaw.com/cases/carlill.html Accessed on: 9 October 2017 Jalil, A. (2011). Clarification of rules of acceptance in making business contracts.J. Pol. L.,4, 109. Knapp, C. L., Crystal, N. M., Prince, H. G. (2016).Problems in Contract Law: cases and materials. Wolters Kluwer Law Business. McKendrick, E. (2014).Contract law: text, cases, and materials. Oxford University Press (UK). Poole, J., Devenney, J., Shaw-Mellors, A. (2017).Contract Law Concentrate: Law Revision and Study Guide. Oxford University Press. Smits, J. M. (Ed.). (2017).Contract law: a comparative introduction. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Tuesday, April 7, 2020
The Internet The Internet is, literally, a network of networks. It is made of thousands of interconnected networks spanning the globe. The computers that form the Internet range from huge mainframes in research establishments to humble PCs in people's homes and offices. Despite the recent publicity, the Internet is not a new thing. Its roots lie in a collection of computers that were linked together in the 1970s to form the US Department of Defense's communications systems. Fearing the consequences of nuclear attack, there was no central computer holding vast amounts of data, but instead the information was dispersed across thousands of machines. A protocol known as TCP/IP was developed to allow different devices to work together. The original network has long since been upgraded and expanded and TCP/IP is now an overall standard. The Internet has gone on now to fulfill a great deal more than it's intended purpose and has definitely brought more good than bad. Millions of people worldwide are using the Internet to share information, make new associations and communicate. Individuals and businesses, from students and journalists, to consultants, programmers and corporate giants are all harnessing the power of the Internet. For many businesses the Internet is becoming integral to their operations. Imagine the ability to send and receive data: messages, notes, letters, documents, pictures, video, sound- just about any form of communication, as effortlessly as making a phone call. It is easy to understand why the Internet is rapidly becoming the corporate communications medium. Using the mouse on your computer, the familiar point-and-click functionality gives you access to electronic mail for sending and receiving data, and file transfer for copying files from one computer to another. This flood of information is a beautiful thing and it can only open the minds of society. With the explosion of the World Wide Web, anyone could publish his or h er ideas to the world. Before, in order to be heard one would have to go through publishers who were willing to invest in his ideas to get something put into print. With the advent of the Internet, anyone who has something to say can be heard by the world. By letting everyone speak their mind, this opens up all new ways of thinking to anyone who is willing to listen. A very important disadvantage is that the Internet is addictive. One of the first people to take the phenomenon seriously was Kimberly S. Young, Ph.D., a professor of psychology at the University of Pittsburgh. She takes it so seriously, in fact, that she founded the Center for Online Addiction, an organization that provides consultation for educational institutions, mental health clinics and corporations dealing with Internet misuse problems. Psychologists now recognize Internet Addiction Syndrome (IAS) as a new illness that could ruin hundreds of lives. Internet addicts are people who are reported staying online for six, eight, ten or more hours a day, every day. They use the Internet as a way of escaping problems or relieving distressed moods. Their usage can cause problems in their family, work and social lives. They feel anxious and irritable when offline and craved getting back online. Despite the consequences, they continue using regardless of what their friends and family say . Special help groups have been set up to give out advice and offer links with other addicts. Internets Anonymous and Webaholics are two of the sites offering help, but only through logging onto the Internet. The effects of IAS lead to headaches, lack of concentration and tiredness. Robert Kraut Doctoral Psychologist says referring on the subject: We have evidence that people who are online for long periods of time show negative changes in how much they talk to people in their family and how many friends and acquaintances they say they keep in contact with. They also report small but increased amounts of loneliness, stress and depression. What we do not know is exactly why. Being online takes up time, and it may be taking time away from sleep, social contact or even eating. Our negative results are understandable if people's interactions on the net are not as socially valuable as their other activities. Another considerable drawback of the Internet is that it is susceptible
Monday, March 9, 2020
How to Stand Out in a Competitive Job Market Due to the high volume of overqualified, over-degreed candidates flooding the market, you should always do as much as you can to distinguish yourself. This includes developing new skills, earning new qualifications and certifications, and sometimes, keeping a shrewd eye on skill sets that are most valuable across the widest swath of jobs. Here are three particularly robust and versatile skills that will render you invaluable to almost any employer.1. Business DevelopmentThis isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just for sales positions. At the end of the day, there are aspects of every job that require sales skills. And every business has people in roles that function as a kind of internal customer. Learning how to pitch ideas, appease different team membersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs, and communicate effectively will help you build relationships, please the people you work with, and prove that you have what it takes to hold a team or a company together. It also never hurts to learn to sell what you need and want most.2 . Data AnalysisData is everywhere. From small to big to massive. And knowing how to handle it is becoming a necessary skill- and one in higher and higher demand. No matter what your field, or position within your company (HR, communications, accounting, marketing), being able to mine data for useful information and then present that information is key. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll also need to bump up your oral and written communication skills, which will always be a plus. And be sure to stay up on the latest data extraction software platforms and techniques. Do this, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll stay ahead of this burgeoning curve.3. Leadership SkillsNot just Ã¢â¬Å"being a bossÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"managing a teamÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"training new employees.Ã¢â¬ Many companies are looking for something a bit more ineffable, and much more useful. Catapult yourself to the top of the leadership line by demonstrating your fluency in collaboration (playing nicely with others and getting real results in the process), decision-making (aka taking the reins and exercising good judgment and control), and mentoring (really nurturing and bringing along younger or more inexperienced colleagues).The more you can prove that youÃ¢â¬â¢re an ethical, well-respected, well-liked colleague and/or supervisor, the more a hiring manager or boss will notice and start getting really excited about hiring you- or doing everything they can to keep you on board.Developing these skills is not a simple fix- more like a career-long strategy. But a very shrewd one that will prove to be rewarding, no matter what the outcomes.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Strategic Partnering within the UK Construction Industry - Dissertation Example i Acknowledgements Firstly I would like to thank my mother, Madonna Barr, who through everything has always provided me with encouragement, love and support. Secondly I would like to thank my family. Firstly my partner Michael Mc Grotty, whose continuous support has made me realize my potential and with that the person I am. Secondly my two darling kids, Dylan and Caitlin, for putting up with me being tired after many late nights working on this. Thirdly I would like to thank, Chris Ajala and Simon Weir for taking the time to answer my questionnaires and meet up with me, on many occasions, to discuss partnering. Last but certainly not least, i would like to thank The School Of The Built Environmant, at Leeds Metropolitan University for their never ending encouragement and support, namely Dr Dave Roberts, Ellen Glover, Chris Gorse and Dave Pearse. ii Declaration I, Aisling Barr, declare that this work is my own and has been adequately referenced in accordance with the Harvard Referencing System. Signed. .......................................................... iii Contents Page Abstract i Acknowledgement ii Declaration iii List of Figures iv SECTION 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 9-13 Chapter II Executive summary 14-15 SECTION II INSIGHT INTO THE CONTRUCTION INDUSTRY PARNERSHIPS Chapter I The Partnerships The partnerships: the concept 18 Disadvantages 20 High performance production systems 20 Partnering and the production in the construction industry 21 The concept of partnering 22 Defining partnerships in construction 22 Management 22 Behavioral patterns 23 Factors for the... The concept of partnering, according to Broome (2002) was first generalized as being developed in the construction industry in Japan in the 1980's, and with that the application of total quality management and lean manufacturing concepts, where taken from manufacturing industries there. Furthermore Broome (2002) states, Ã¢â¬Å"The motivation for partnering and its popularization came from the USAÃ¢â¬ . Winch (2002) says that partnering in the UK came about due to the failure of traditional procurement methods ability to meet with client demands and with that the achievement of project objectives. Sir Michael Latham's report, (Constructing the Team, 1994) commissioned by the government and industry, recognized the need for a solution to the on-going problems within the construction industry. It explained the aspects of partnering and suggested that it would bring significant benefits to all parties. As partnering is not specific to the construction industry, there are many definitions. According to Telford (2002), partnering has been explained as: Ã¢â¬Å"A relationship between purchasers and providers of goods and services throughout the supply chain. The relationship is designed to achieve specific business objectives by maximizing the effectiveness of each participantÃ¢â¬â¢s resource. The relationship is based on mutual objectives, an agreed method of problem resolution and an active search for continuous measurable improvements.Ã¢â¬ A Partnering definition from the Construction Industry Institute, 1989 states: